# Publications

#### High Voltage Systems Design

High voltage connectivity in a vacuum, especially at very high levels (>100kV), is integral to the Orbitron fusion reactor. The following papers highlight our designs and explorations of the phenomena we encounter in high vacuum conditions.

## Fusion

**M. Borghei**, D. Velazquez, P. Gavin, R. Langtry, R. McMullen, B. Riordan, "The Aging Effect of Surface Flashovers on Insulator Surface in Vacuum: A Case Study," 2023 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP), East Rutherford, NJ, USA, 2023, pp. 1-6.**M. Borghei**, D. Velazquez, R. McMullen, G. Latchford, B. Riordan, R. Langtry, "Impact of Direct Current Conditioning on Cathode Dark Current in High Vacuum," in*2023 30th International Symposium on Discharges and Electrical Insulation in Vacuum (ISDEIV)*, pp. 74-77, 2023.**M. Borghei**, R. Langtry, R. McMullen, B. Riordan, R. Walker, "A Compact, 300-kVDC Bushing for Operation under Ultra-High Vacuum Pressure," in*2022 IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP)*, pp. 471-474, 2022.

#### Electrical Insulation Design

Electrification of aviation systems presents unique challenges for electric insulation systems, including increased susceptibility to partial discharge, reduced breakdown voltage, and so on. In this series of articles, we review these challenges, conduct tests under low-pressure conditions, and develop systems to monitor the health of the insulation systems.

## Electric Aircraft

**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Insulation materials and systems for more and all electric aircraft: A review identifying challenges and future research needs," in*IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification*, 2021.**M. Borghei,**M. Ghassemi, "Classification of partial discharge in electric aircraft based on short-term behavior of insulation systems," in*2021 AIAA/IEEE Electric Aircraft Technologies Symposium (EATS)*, pp. 1-10, 2021.**M. Borghei,**M. Ghassemi, "A deep learning approach for discrimination of single-and multi-source corona discharges," in*IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science*, vol. 49, no. 9, pp. 2936-2945, 2021.**M. Borghei,**M. Ghassemi, "Discrimination of Single-and Multi-Source Corona Discharges using Deep Residual Network," in*2021 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS)*, pp. 1-5, 2021.**M. Borghei,**M. Ghassemi, "Deep Learning Models for Multi-Source Corona Discharge Classification Under DC Voltage," in*2021 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science (ICOPS)*, pp. 1-1, 2021.**M. Borghei,**M. Ghassemi, "Separation and classification of corona discharges under low pressures based on deep learning method," in*IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation*, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 319-326, 2022.

#### Modeling and Experimentation

During my graduate studies, I extensively explored the physics of internal discharges. My work involved multiphysics modeling of this type of partial discharge, and I have discussed the test results in detail, focusing on various applications, especially in novel power electronics switches and the aviation industry.

## Partial Discharge

**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Effects of low-pressure condition on partial discharges in WBG power electronics modules," in*2020 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)*, pp. 199-202, 2020.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, B. Kordi, P. Gill, D. Oliver, "A finite element analysis model for internal partial discharges in an air-filled, cylindrical cavity inside solid dielectric," in*2021 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)*, pp. 260-263, 2021.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Partial Discharge Investigation in an Air-Filled Cavity inside Silicone Gel Under Low-Pressure Conditions Using Finite-Element Analysis," in*2021 AIAA/IEEE Electric Aircraft Technologies Symposium (EATS)*, pp. 1-6, 2021.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, B. Kordi, D. Oliver, "Modeling and measurement of internal partial discharges in voids artificially made within 3D-printed polylactic acid (PLA) block," in*2021 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS)*, pp. 1-6, 2021.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Characterization of partial discharge activities in WBG power converters under low-pressure condition," in*Energies*, vol. 14, no. 17, pp. 5394, 2021.M. Saghafi, M. Ghassemi, J. Lehr,

**M. Borghei**, B. Kordi, D. Oliver, "A Finite Element Analysis Model for Internal Partial Discharges Under DC Voltage," in*2022 IEEE International Power Modulator and High Voltage Conference (IPMHVC)*, pp. 8-11, 2022.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Characterization of Partial Discharge Activities in WBG Power Converters under Low-Pressure Condition.*Energies*, 14, 5394," 2021.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Partial discharge finite element analysis under fast, repetitive voltage pulses," in*2019 IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium (ESTS)*, pp. 324-328, 2019.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Finite element modeling of partial discharge activity within a spherical cavity in a solid dielectric material under fast, repetitive voltage pulses," in*2019 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)*, pp. 34-37, 2019.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Partial discharge analysis under high-frequency, fast-rise square wave voltages in silicone gel: A modeling approach," in*Energies*, vol. 12, no. 23, pp. 4543, 2019.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "A finite element analysis model for partial discharges in silicone gel under a high slew rate, high-frequency square wave voltage in low-pressure conditions," in*Energies*, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2152, 2020.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, J. Rodríguez-Serna, R. Albarracín-Sánchez, "A finite element analysis and an improved induced charge concept for partial discharge modeling," in*IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery*, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 2570-2581, 2020.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Investigation of low-pressure condition impact on partial discharge in micro-voids using finite-element analysis," in*2020 IEEE Energy Conversion Congress and Exposition (ECCE)*, pp. 3293-3298, 2020.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Characterization of partial discharge activities in WBG power modules under low-pressure condition," in*IEEE Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (CEIDP)*, pp. 297-300, 2020.

#### Planning and Optimization

##### Distributed energy resources open up the possibility of microgrids operating either in isolation from or in connection with the main grid. In this series of articles, I examine this issue from a planning perspective, aiming to maximize the network's resilience against natural disasters.

## Microgrids

**Borghei, Moein**; M. Ghassemi, "A multi-objective optimization scheme for resilient, cost-effective planning of microgrids," in*IEEE Access*, vol. 8, pp. 206325-206341, 2020.**Borghei, Moein**; M. Ghassemi, "Optimal planning of microgrids for resilient distribution networks," in*International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems*, vol. 128, pp. 106682, 2021.**Borghei, Moein**; M. Ghassemi, Liu, Chen-Ching; "Optimal capacity and placement of microgrids for resiliency enhancement of distribution networks under extreme weather events," in*2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT)*, pp. 1-5, 2020.

#### An Unconventional Design

The power transmission system in countries like the U.S. is notably aged. When considering the expansion or upgrade of transmission lines, it may be beneficial to think outside the box and reconsider the traditional assumption of symmetry for bundle conductors. This series of articles explores the potential for higher power transfer capabilities through optimized, unconventional transmission line designs.

## Transmission Line

J. Hernández, J. Segundo, P. Gómez,

**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Electromagnetic transient performance of optimally designed high surge impedance loading lines," in*2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society General Meeting (PESGM)*, pp. 1-5, 2020.J. Hernández, J. Segundo, Gómez,

**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Statistical switching overvoltage studies of optimized unconventional high surge impedance loading lines via numerical Laplace transform," in*IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery*, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 2145-2153, 2020.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Geometrically optimized phase configurations and sub-conductors in the bundle for power transmission efficiency," in*2019 IEEE Electrical Insulation Conference (EIC)*, pp. 295-299, 2019.**M. Borghei**, M. Ghassemi, "Future transmission lines with increased loadability through geometrically optimized phase configurations and sub-conductors in the bundle," in*2020 IEEE Power & Energy Society Innovative Smart Grid Technologies Conference (ISGT)*, pp. 1-5, 2020.